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General Information About Water Desalination

Less than 1% of the global fresh water supply is potable. Seawater and brackish water can be converted to drinkable water through reverse osmosis.

While osmosis is a naturally occurring process where solvent molecules spontaneously enter through a semi-permeable membrane into a higher solute concentrate, reverse osmosis purification requires an external force to occur.

Reverse osmosis desalination is a process that purifies seawater or contaminated and undrinkable water sources using osmotic pressure to push salt water through a membrane. The result is water devoid of dissolved salts and harmful content.

The seawater membranes used in desalination systems remove salt, bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and cysts, from the raw water. This produces fresh and potable water. Because of this, reverse osmosis is one of the most absolute purification processes, and is used by militaries, hospitals, and communities worldwide.

Viruses Hepatitis A, Norwalk Virus, Rotavirus, Poliovirus
~0.02 – 0.2 microns
Bacteria E-coli (Escherichia coli), Salmonella (Salmonella typhimurium), Cholera (Vibrio cholerae)
0.2 – 5 microns
Protozoans Amoeobiasis (Entamoeba histolytica)
1 – 15 microns
Cysts Giardia lamblia (Giardia intestinalis), Cryptosporidium (Cryptosporidumparvum)
1–<1 microns hdd


Membrane Filtration Spectrum

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January 19, 2017
Disaster Response in Fiji: Fresh Water from a Desalination Barge after Cyclone Winston

Spectra Watermakers and NGO Sea Mercy provide clean, potable water via barge to isolated island communities.

March 25, 2017 – March 28, 2017